Not being an Adobe user, I have no idea what that first screenshot is showing and I do not see it in the picture shown. I am going to assume it is pointing out banding.
I don't think it has to do with the amount of light in the scene, though perhaps the dynamic range presented some challenges for the sensor (depending on other settings).
Some people believe lens-compensation settings can cause this kind of banding (even in RAWs). I can neither confirm or deny, as I set mine up as neutral everything and no corrections enabled. You may run across some articles about lossy compression artifacts, but those are different and don't really have the effect of concentric circular artifacts like what you are seeing.
What were your settings at the time? Exposure compensation? Were you exposing for the sky or the shadows or a default metering? Using any techniques like ETTR, e.g. was the sky blown out in the original and exposure pulled down? It is better to pull up shadows (in my opinion anyway) than pull down highlights. In fact I now noticed you have shadows at +100. Does this show if you do not have shadows maxed? Did you significantly raise/lower anything else in post? Certain editors in some circumstances will definitely cause banding if settings are altered by a large amount. Might want to try another editor just to see if it is an effect of the editor. Or a different technique, e.g. pull back the shadows and raise exposure.
If your shutter speed is 1/1000 or higher, you should turn off EFCS. (I believe it is on by default. I do not know for sure if silent shutter also has an effect at high shutter speed.) I forget this all the time, and most of the time I notice no ill effects. But I have seen banding with EFCS on and smooth "surfaces" like sky and water at a high shutter speed. So that could be the reason here... and now I see the shutter speed in the upper left of your screenshot appears to be 1/320th. So never mind that - but something to remember.
Looks like a Lightroom bug to me; I sometimes see that when I'm moving sliders quickly after each other but it mostly goes away by itself or by doing something else in Lightroom. This pattern could originate from the Details tab, something like you see when holding the Alt/Option button while adjusting sharpness amount/radius/detail/masking. I'd try to restart Lightroom and Windows/macOS and see if it goes away.